GEOG 204 – Spatial Analysis

Section 001, 4 Credits

Spring 2015


Instructor: Dr. Arthur J. Lembo, Jr.

Office: Henson Hall 157H

Office Hours: M,W,F 9:00-11:00am; (also by appointment)

Phone: 410-677-0140


Class Meetings: MWF 11 – 11:50 a.m., F 12 – 1:40 p.m.; Henson Hall 153


Text:  Introduction to Statistical Problem Solving in Geography, 3rd Edition, Waveland Press.  McGrew, Lembo, Monroe. (available at bookstore,,, and


Workbook: Workbook for Statistical Problem Solving in Geography.  Lembo. (available through,, and – see Professor for coupon code before ordering).


Course Description: This course will introduce the basics of statistics and their applications in geographic research.  You will be exposed to both descriptive and inferential statistics, with an emphasis on geographic applications.  This course focuses on statistical analysis and spatial statistics, since these methods are crucial to anyone having to deal with spatially-oriented problems.  Applications from both human and physical geography will be used for in-class examples and out-of-class exercises.  In class, problems will be presented and output interpreted using Minitab statistical software or Excel, but you may use any software system you wish.  After finishing this class, students are expected to be able to know how to collect data, choose the appropriate statistical techniques and analyze the data according to their research questions.


Exams: This course has a total of three exams during the semester as well as a final exam.  Each exam is worth 60 points and the final exam is worth 120 points (a total of 300 points for all exams).  Each exam will be administered as scheduled.  All exams count for a portion of the final grade; none can be dropped.  Very few if any numerical calculations are required in the exams.  Questions are a mix of objective (multiple choice, matching, fill in, simple graphics) and essays.  Questions involve: (1) basic knowledge of the characteristics and factual information associated with a statistical technique or concept; (2) understanding and interpretation of the purposes and objectives of a technique; (3) explanation of why a technique is important, and the limitations of the technique; (4) creative identification of geographic problems that can be solved by a technique; and (5) the ability to decide which statistical technique is most appropriate, when presented with a geographic data set of a research problem. 


There are also 2 Lab Practicum Exams each worth 50 points (a total of 100 points).  The practicum exams will be open book and require the use of a computer to perform the calculations. 


Make-up Exams: Any student missing an exam must supply the instructor with a written excuse.  It is the student’s responsibility to inform the instructor of the missed exam within one class day after the original exam is given in order to schedule a make-up exam.  Anyone failing to comply with this policy will receive a zero for the missed exam.


Exercises: This course has a total of 10 exercises worth 10 points each (a total of 100 points for all exercises).  The exercises are designed to reinforce the lecture and should be completed during the lab time.  Students will submit their workbook at the end of lab to be checked.  If an exercise is turned in late, the penalty is 5 points per school day late. Additional decisions to alter exercise assignments or points may have to be made during the semester as conditions warrant, and the instructor reserves the right to make these decisions.


Grades: This course has a total of 500 points.  Each student’s grade for this course will be determined by a percentage based on the total points accumulated by that individual, divided by the total number of points possible (500).  Letter grades will be assigned as follows:


Letter Grade

Percentage of Points

Total Points


90.00 – 100%

450 – 500


80.00 – 89.99%

400 – 449


70.00 – 79.99%

350 – 399


60.00 – 69.99%

300 – 349


0.00 – 59.99%

Below 300


Attendance: Attending class is important.  Coming to class, paying attention and taking notes is the best way to learn the course material.  Most lectures will come from the textbook, but some material will only be presented in class. 





Classroom Environment: Students are expected to contribute to an environment appropriate for learning that considers and respects the needs and rights of others.  Any academic misconduct will be confronted and handled accordingly.  Please silence all electronic devices while in class.  Do not arrive late and do not leave early – the door will be closed at 11:05.  Please note, if you miss lecture on Friday, you will not be allowed to attend the lab.


Academic Integrity: Cheating, plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty will not be tolerated in this course.  Students should pay special attention to the expectations discussed in the 2005-2006 Student Handbook and 2005-2007 University Catalog.  Violating these rules will result in significant grade penalties up to and including a failing grade for the course.  Extreme cases of academic misconduct can result in expulsion from the University.


Writing Across the Curriculum: All writing assignments, both formal and informal, are in support of Salisbury University’s Writing Across the Curriculum Program.


Important University Dates for Spring

Last day to drop/add –  January 30

Last day to withdraw from course to receive a “W” – April 3            



Changes to Syllabus: This syllabus may be modified or changed by the instructor as necessary. Students will be notified of the changes in class. 


Approximate Schedule – Spatial Analysis – Spring 2015










Ch. 1

Monday, January 26, 2014

An introduction to spatial analysis.  Role of Statistics in Geography. Examples of Statistical Problem


 Ch. 2

Wednesday, January 28, 2014

The Context of statistical techniques.  Geographic Data: Characteristics and Preparation



Friday, January 30, 2014

Geographic Data: Characteristics and Preparation

 Exercise 1: chapters 1 and 2





Ch. 3

Monday, February 02, 2014

Descriptive Statistics and Graphics: Central tendency, Dispersion and Variability.



Wednesday, February 04, 2014

Descriptive Statistics and Graphics: Shape or relative position.



Friday, February 06, 2014

Spatial Data and Descriptive Statistics

Exercise 2: chapter 3





Ch. 4

Monday, February 09, 2014

Descriptive Spatial Statistics


 Ch. 5

Wednesday, February 11, 2014

Basic Probability and Discreet Probability Distributions


 Ch. 5

Friday, February 13, 2014

Basic Probability and Discreet Probability Distributions

Exercise 3: Chapters 4 and 5





 Ch. 6

Monday, February 16, 2014

Continuous Probability Distributions


 Ch. 6

Wednesday, February 18, 2014

Continuous Probability Distributions and exam review



Friday, February 20, 2014

Exam 1 chapters 1 - 5






Ch. 6

Monday, February 23, 2014

Continuous Probability Distributions


 Ch. 7

Wednesday, February 25, 2014

Basic Element of Sampling



Friday, February 27, 2014

Basic Element of Sampling

Exercise 4: chapters 6 and 7





Ch. 8

Monday, March 02, 2014

Estimation in Sampling 


 Ch. 8

Wednesday, March 04, 2014

Estimation in Sampling


Friday, March 06, 2014

Estimation in Sampling

Exercise 5: chapter 8





Ch. 9

Monday, March 09, 2014

Elements of Inferential Statistics



Wednesday, March 11, 2014

Elements of Inferential Statistics



Friday, March 13, 2014

Exam 2 chapters 6, 7, and 8





Monday, March 16, 2014




Wednesday, March 19, 2014




Friday, March 20, 2014







 Ch. 9

Monday, March 23, 2014

One sample tests and Two Sample Tests


 Ch. 10

Wednesday, March 25, 2014

Two Sample Tests


 Ch. 10

Friday, March 27, 2014

Two sample tests

Exercise 6: chapter 9 and 10





Ch. 11

Monday, March 30, 2014

Three or more sample tests


 Ch. 11

Wednesday, April 01, 2014

Three or more sample tests


Ch. 11

Friday, April 03, 2014

Three or more sample tests

Exercise 7: chapter 11





 Ch. 12

Monday, April 06, 2014

Categorical Difference Tests



Wednesday, April 08, 2014

Categorical Difference Tests



Friday, April 11, 2014

Exam 3

Lab Practicum





Ch. 13

Monday, April 13, 2014

Inferential spatial statistics; point patterns


 Ch. 14

Wednesday, April 15, 2014

Point pattern analysis


 Ch. 14

Friday, April 17, 2014

Area pattern analysis

Exercise 8: chapter 14





Ch. 15

Monday, April 20, 2014

Area pattern analysis, continued  


 Ch. 16

Wednesday, April 22, 2014



 Ch. 16

Friday, April 24, 2014

Correlation, continued 

Exercise 9: chapter 16





 Ch. 17

Monday, April 27, 2014

Linear regression


 Ch. 17

Wednesday, April 29, 2014

Linear regression, continued


 Ch. 18

Friday, May 01, 2014

Multivariate regression

Exercise 10: chapter 17






Monday, May 04, 2014

Multivariate regression, continued



Wednesday, May 06, 2014

Mop up







Friday, May 08, 2014

Exam Review

 Lab Practicum


















 Tuesday, May 20, 2013

Final Exam  10:45-1:15