Professor of Mathematics Education
Contact InformationOffice: Teacher Education and Technology Center, Room 379R Office phone: 14106775061 Email: regroth@salisbury.edu


Current Funded Projects:


Institutions AttendedMarquette University, B.S. in Mathematics University of Wisconsin  Oshkosh, M.S. in Mathematics Education Illinois State University, Ph.D. in Mathematics Education Dissertation: Groth, R.E. (2003).
Development
of a high school statistical thinking framework. (Doctoral dissertation,
Illinois State University, 2003) Dissertation
Abstracts International, 64 (04), 1202.

Teaching Experience19961997: High School Mathematics Teacher, Messmer High School, Milwaukee, WI 19972000: High School Mathematics Teacher, Clintonville High School, Clintonville, WI 20002003: Graduate Teaching and Research Assistant, Illinois State University 2003  2009: Assistant Professor of Mathematics Education, Salisbury University 20092016: Associate Professor of Mathematics Education, Salisbury University 2016present: Professor of Mathematics Education, Salisbury University

Undergraduate Level Courses Taught EDUC 300  Development, Learning, and Assessment ELED 311  Elementary School Mathematics Instruction MATH 130  Fundamental Concepts I MATH 150  Data and Probability Connections SCED 320  Technology in Mathematics Education SCED 373  Secondary School Mathematics Instruction, Part I SCED 426/428  Directed Teaching in the Secondary School SCED 473  Secondary School Mathematics Instruction, Part II

Graduate Level Courses Taught EDUC 502  Introduction to Educational Research EDUC 506  Seminar in the Teaching of Mathematics EDUC 590  Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School EDUC 695  Research Seminar

Groth, R. E., Bergner, J. A., Austin, J. W., Burgess, C. R., & Holdai, V. (in press). Undergraduate research in mathematics education: Using qualitative data about children's learning to make teaching decisions. Mathematics Teacher Educator
Groth, R.E., Austin, J.W., Naumann, M., & Rickards, M. (in press). Toward a theoretical structure to characterize early probabilistic thinking. Mathematics Education Research Journal
Groth, R.E. (in press). Gathering quality evidence from classroom conversations. Illinois Mathematics Teacher
Groth, R.E., Bergner, J.A., & Austin, J.W. (2020). Dimensions of learning probability vocabulary. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 51(1), 75104.
Groth, R.E., (2019). Applying designbased research findings to improve the Common Core State Standards for data and statistics in Grades 46. Journal of Statistics Education, 27(1), 2936. Available: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10691898.2019.1565935
Groth, R.E., Austin, J.W., Naumann, M., & Rickards, M. (2019). Probability puppets. Teaching Statistics, 41(2), 5457.
Groth, R.E., Jones, M., & Knaub, M. (2018). A framework for characterizing students' cognitive processes related to informal best fit lines. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 20(4), 251276.
Groth, R.E. (2018). Unpacking implicit disagreements among early childhood standards for statistics and probability. In A. Leavy, M. MeletiouMavrotheris, & E. Paparistodemou (Eds.), Statistics in early childhood and primary education: Supporting early statistical and probabilistic thinking (pp. 149162). Singapore: Springer.
Groth, R.E., & MeletiouMavrotheris, M. (2018). Research on statistics teachers' cognitive and affective characteristics. In D. BenZvi, K. Makar, & J. Garfield (Eds.), International handbook of research in statistics education (pp. 327355). Springer International Handbooks of Education. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Groth, R.E. (2017). Developing statistical knowledge for teaching during designbased research. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16(2), 376396. Available: https://iaseweb.org/documents/SERJ/SERJ16(2)_Groth.pdf
Groth, R.E., Jones, M., & Knaub, M. (2017). Working with noise in bivariate data. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 23(2), 8289.
Groth, R.E. (2017). Classroom data analysis with the Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Ideas, and Issues, 90(3), 103109.
Groth, R.E., Bergner, J.A., & Burgess, C.R. (2016). An exploration of prospective teachers' learning of clinical interview techniques. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 18(2), 4871.
Groth, R.E., Butler, J., & Nelson, D. (2016). Overcoming challenges in learning probability vocabulary. Teaching Statistics, 38(3), 102107.
Bargagliotti, A., & Groth, R.E. (2016). When statistics and mathematics collide in assessment tasks. Teaching Statistics, 38(2), 5055.
Groth, R.E., & McFadden, J. (2016). Identity development during undergraduate research in mathematics education. Mathematics Education, 11(2), 357375.
Groth, R.E., Bergner, J.A., Burgess, C.R., Austin, J.W., & Holdai, V. (2016). Reimagining education of mathematics teachers through undergraduate research. Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) Quarterly, 36(3), 4146.
Groth, R.E., Kent, K., & Hitch, E. (2015). Journey to centers in the core. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 21, 295302.
Groth, R.E. (2015). Royalty, racing, rolling pigs, and statistical variability. Teaching Children Mathematics, 22, 218228.
Casey, S.A., Ross, A., Groth, R.E., & Zejnullahi, R. (2015). Developing teachers' knowledge of content and students for teaching categorical association. In Bartell, T.G., Bieda, K.N., Putnam, R.T., Bradfield, K., & Dominguez, H. (Eds.), Proceedings of the thirtyseventh annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Groth, R.E. (2015). JRME monographs: Looking back and thinking forward. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46(5), 506510.
Groth, R.E. (2015). Dynamic discourse with dynamic statistics software. Illinois Mathematics Teacher, 63(1), 612.
Groth, R.E. (2015). Using the five practices model to promote statistical discourse. Teaching Statistics, 37(1), 1317.
Groth, R.E. (2015). Working at the boundaries of mathematics education and statistics education communities of practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46(1), 416.
Groth, R.E. (2014). Using work samples from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to design tasks that assess statistical knowledge for teaching. Journal of Statistics Education, 22(3), Available: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v22n3/groth.pdf
Bargagliotti, A., Anderson, C., Casey, S., Everson, M., Franklin, C., Gould, R., Groth, R., Haddock, J., & Watkins, A. (2014). ProjectSET materials for the teaching and learning of sampling variability and regression. In K. Makar, B. de Sousa, & R. Gould (Eds.), Sustainability in statistics education. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9, July, 2014), Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Voorburn, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
Groth, R.E. (2014). Prospective teachers' procedural and conceptual knowledge of mean absolute deviation. Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 6(3), 5169.
Groth, R.E. (2013). Dynamic representations and flexible trigonometric thinking. Banneker Banner, 28(2), 3242.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2013). Mapping the structure of knowledge for teaching nominal categorical data analysis. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83, 247265.
Groth, R.E. (2013). Characterizing key developmental understandings and pedagogically powerful ideas within a statistical knowledge for teaching framework. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 15, 121145.
Groth, R.E. (2013). A day in the life of a statistical knowledge for teaching course. Teaching Statistics, 35(1), 3742.
Groth, R.E. (2013). Teaching mathematics in grades 612: Developing researchbased instructional practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Pearl, D.K., Garfield, J.B., delMas, R., Groth, R.E., Kaplan, J.J., McGowan, H., and Lee, H.S. (2012). Connecting research to practice in a culture of assessment for introductory collegelevel statistics. [Online: http://www.causeweb.org/research/guidelines/ResearchReport_Dec_2012.pdf]
Groth, R.E. (2012). The role of writing prompts in a statistical knowledge for teaching course. Mathematics Teacher Educator, 1, 2340.
Groth, R.E., & Bargagliotti, A.E. (2012). GAISEing into the statistics common core. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 18, 3845.
Groth, R.E. (2012). Establishing and maintaining collaboration: Factors related to the sustainability of lesson study. In J. BayWilliams (Ed.), Professional Collaborations in Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Seeking Success for All 74th Yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 285296). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E., Bergner, J.A., & Barzilai, H. (2012). Supporting teachers' understanding and use of algebra tiles. NCSM Journal of Mathematics Education Leadership, 14 (1), 1018.
Groth, R.E., & Shihong, X. (2011). Preparing teachers through case analyses. In C. Batanero & G. Burrill (Eds.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics  Challenges for teaching and teacher education: A joint ICMIIASE study (pp. 371382). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Groth, R.E. (2011). Improving teaching through lesson study debriefing. Mathematics Teacher, 104, 446451.
Groth, R.E. (2010). Situating qualitative modes of inquiry within the discipline of statistics education research. Statistics Education Research Journal, 9(2), 721, Available: http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/serj/SERJ9(2)_Groth.pdf
Groth, R.E. (2010). Interactions among knowledge, beliefs, and goals in framing a qualitative study in statistics education. Journal of Statistics Education, 18(1), Available: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v18n1/groth.pdf
Groth, R.E. (2010). Three perspectives on the central objects of study for grades PreK8 statistics. In B.J. Reys & R.E. Reys (Eds.), Mathematics curriculum issues, trends, and further directions: Seventysecond yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 157170). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E. (2010). Teachers' construction of learning environments for conditional probability and independence. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 5, 3255.
Groth, R.E., Spickler, D.E., Bergner, J.A., & Bardzell, M.J. (2009). A qualitative approach to assessing technological pedagogical content knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (4), Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss4/mathematics/article1.cfm
Groth, R.E., & Burgess, C.R. (2009). An exploration of two online approaches to mathematics teacher education. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 28, 221246.
Groth, R.E. (2009). Characteristics of teachers' conversations about teaching mean, median, and mode. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 707716.
Groth, R.E. (2009). Capitalizing on differences of opinion. In G. Zimmerman, P. Guinee, L.M. Fulmore, & E. Murray (Eds.), Empowering the mentor of the beginning mathematics teacher (pp. 6364). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Lesser, L., & Groth, R.E. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge in statistics. In P. Bogacki (Ed.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual International Conference on Technology in Collegiate Mathematics (pp. 148152). Available: http://archives.math.utk.edu/ICTCM/VOL20/S118/paper.pdf.
Groth, R.E., & Burgess, C.R. (2009). A venue for peer reviews. Teaching Children Mathematics, 15, 354360.
Groth, R.E. (2008). Navigating layers of uncertainty in teaching statistics through case discussion. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, C. Reading, & A. Rossman (Eds.), Joint ICMI/IASE study: Teaching statistics in school mathematics. Challenges for teaching and teacher education. Proceedings of the ICMI study 18 and 2008 IASE round table conference. Available: http://www.ugr.es/~icmi/iase_study/.
Groth, R.E. (2008). Assessing teachers' discourse about the Prek12 Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE). Statistics Education Research Journal, 7(1), 1639.
Groth, R.E. (2008). A complex system analysis of practitioners' discourse about research. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 30, 3460.
Groth, R.E. (2008). Analyzing online discourse to assess students' thinking. Mathematics Teacher, 101, 422427.
Groth, R.E. (2007). Reflections on a researchinspired lesson about fairness of dice. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 13, 237243.
Groth, R.E. (2007). Toward a conceptualization of statistical knowledge for teaching. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38, 427437.
Groth, R.E. (2007). Understanding teachers' resistance to the curricular inclusion of alternative algorithms. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 19, 328.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2007). Teachers' perspectives on mathematics education research reports. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 809825.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2007). Building an online discussion group for teachers. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 12, 530535.
Groth, R.E. (2007). Case studies of mathematics teachers’ learning in an online study group. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 7(1). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol7/iss1/mathematics/article1.cfm
Groth, R.E. (2006). Analysis of an online case discussion about teaching stochastics. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 7, 5371.
Groth, R.E. (2006). Expanding teachers’ understanding of geometric definition: The case of the trapezoid. Teaching Children Mathematics, 12, 376380.
Groth, R.E. (2006). Engaging students in authentic data analysis. In G.F. Burrill & P.C. Elliot (Eds.), Thinking and reasoning with data and chance: Sixtyeighth yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 4148). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Groth, R.E. & Bergner, J.A. (2006). Preservice elementary teachers' conceptual and procedural knowledge of mean, median, and mode. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8, 3763.
Groth, R.E. (2006). An exploration of students' statistical thinking. Teaching Statistics, 28, 1721.
Groth, R.E. (2005). Thoughts on teaching to the assessment limits in the Maryland Voluntary State Curriculum. Banneker Banner, 23(1), 1821.
Groth, R.E. (2005). Linking theory and practice in teaching geometry. Mathematics Teacher, 99, 2730.
Bergner, J.A. & Groth, R.E. (2005). Making mathematical connections by constructing tetrahedra. Mathematics Teacher, 98, 298305.
Groth, R.E. (2005). An investigation of statistical thinking in two different contexts: Detecting a signal in a noisy process and determining a typical value. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 24, 109124.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2005). Preservice elementary school teachers' metaphors for the concept of statistical sample. Statistics Education Research Journal, 4 (2), 2742.
Groth, R.E. (2004). High school students' levels of thinking in regard to analyzing univariate data sets. In McDougall, D.E. & J.A. Ross (Eds.). Proceedings of the twentysixth annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Volume 1 (pp. 414415). Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
Groth, R.E. & Powell, N.N. (2004). Using research projects to help develop high school students’ statistical thinking. Mathematics Teacher, 97, 106109.
Groth, R.E. (2003). High school students’ levels of thinking in regard to statistical study design. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15, 252269.
Groth, R.E. (2002). Characterizing secondary students’ understanding of measures of central tendency and variation. In D.S. Mewborn, P. Sztajn, D.Y. White, H.G. Wiegel, R.L. Bryant, & K. Nooney (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentyfourth annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Volume 1 (pp. 247257). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.
Reprints:
Groth, R.E. (2013). Reflections on a researchinspired lesson about the fairness of dice. In G. Lappan, M.S. Smith, & E. Jones (Eds.), More rich and engaging mathematics tasks: Grades 59 (pp. 415422). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E., & Powell, N.N. (2012). Using research projects to help develop high school students’ statistical thinking. In J. Newton & S. Kasten (Eds.), Reasoning and sensemaking activities for high school mathematics: Selections from Mathematics Teacher (pp. 275279). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E. (2009). Capitalizing on differences of opinion. In G. Zimmerman, P. Guinee, L.M. Fulmore, & E. Murray (Eds.), Empowering the mentor of the experienced mathematics teacher (pp. 6566). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E. (2008). Expanding teachers' understanding of geometric definition: The case of the trapezoid. In J.M. BayWilliams & K. Karp (Eds.), Growing professionally: Readings from NCTM publications for grades K8 (pp. 7075). Reston, VA: NCTM.
Groth, R.E. (2007). Zeitschrift des vereins zur förderung des schulischen stochastikunterrichts. Stochastik in der Schule, 27(1), 911.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2019, February). Productive mistakes during designbased research as learning sites for prospective teachers. TwentyThird Annual Conference of the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, Orlando, FL.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2017, February). A model for integrating mathematics teacher education and undergraduate research. TwentyFirst Annual Conference of the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, Orlando, FL.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2016, November). Lesson study and beyond: Collaborative reflection cycles for improving mathematics teaching. Hood College Mathematics Education Colloquium, Frederick, MD.
Groth, R.E. (2016, February). An undergraduate research model for mathematics teacher education. University of Maryland Mathematics Education Colloquium, College Park, MD.
Groth, R.E. (2016, May). Prospective teachers' use of dynamic statistics software. 2016 Electronic Conference on Teaching Statistics.
Groth, R.E. (2015, October). Merging the worlds of mathematics teacher education and undergraduate research. NCTM Regional Conference, Atlantic City, NJ.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2014, October). Using formative assessment to drive instruction. Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD.
Bargagliotti, A., Casey, S., Groth, R.E., & Ross, A. (2014, May). Panel discussion on the impact of the Common Core. 2014 Electronic Conference on Teaching Statistics.
Bargagliotti, A., & Groth, R.E. (2014, May). When mathematics and statistics collide in assessment tasks. 2014 Electronic Conference on Teaching Statistics.
Casey, S., Ross, A., & Groth, R.E. (2014, May). Statistical knowledge for teaching activities and assessments. 2014 Electronic Conference on Teaching Statistics.
Groth, R.E. (2014, February). Building synergistic relationships between teaching and research. 4th Annual Salisbury University Teaching and Learning Conference, Salisbury, MD.
Groth, R.E. (2013, August). The influence of statistical knowledge for teaching theory on the development of a statistics course for PreK8 teachers. 2013 Joint Statistical Meetings, Montreal, Quebec, CA.
Harrell, L.M., Pierce, R.L., Lesser, L.M., Groth, R.E., Murphy, T.J., & Sorto, M.A. (2013, May). Preparing to teach K12 statistics: Assessing teachers’ readiness. United States Conference on Teaching Statistics, Cary, NC.
Bargagliotti, A., Franklin, C., Groth, R.E., Jacobbe, T., & Kaplan, J. (2013, May). K12 teacher preparation in statistics: It is no longer optional but essential. United States Conference on Teaching Statistics, Cary, NC.
Groth, R.E. (2012, August). Preparing prospective teachers to implement the Common Core State Standards for statistics and probability. Mathematical Association of America MathFest, Madison, WI.
Groth, R.E. (2012, April). Contrasting cases in the development of statistical knowledge for teaching. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Presession, Philadelphia, PA.
Zieffler, A., delMas, R., Groth, R.E., & Mvududu, N. (2011, May). Introduction to qualitative research methods in statistics education. United States Conference on Teaching Statistics, Cary, NC.
Groth, R.E., Jaccobe, T., Madden, S., & Zieffler, A. (2011, April). Research in statistics education: Current efforts and future directions. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Research Presession, Indianapolis, IN.
Groth, R.E. (2009, October). Establishing productive lesson study groups. Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, Germantown, MD.
Groth, R.E., Bergner, J.A., & Noonan, K. (2009, April). Forming partnerships among teachers, mathematicians, and mathematics educators through lesson study. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, Washington, D.C.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2009, January). A lesson study approach to developing productive dialogue between university mathematics faculty and high school teachers. Joint Annual Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, Washington, D.C.
Groth, R.E. (2008, July). Navigating layers of uncertainty in teaching statistics through case discussion. Joint ICMI/IASE study: Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education, Monterrey, Mexico.
delMas, R., Groth, R.E., Lesser, L., & Miller, J. (2007, May). I wonder...from question to research. United States Conference on Teaching Statistics, Columbus, OH.
Fey, J.T., Groth, R.E., & Barnes, B. (2006, October). Linking teachers and researchers to define best practice in mathematics teaching. Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, Millersville, MD.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2006, April). Professional development through online discussion groups. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, St. Louis, MO.
Groth, R.E., & Bergner, J.A. (2006, January). Theoretical lenses for examining undergraduate students' statistical thinking. Joint Annual Meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, San Antonio, TX.
Jenne, J.T., White, A.F., Weaver, S.D., & Groth, R.E. (2005, December). Shifting the content reading paradigm: What reading professors can learn from content methods instructors, and why they should. Fiftyfifth Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference, Miami, FL.
Groth, R.E. (2004, October). High school students' levels of thinking in regard to analyzing univariate data sets. Twentysixth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Toronto, ON, CA.
Groth, R.E. (2004, October). Levels of thinking in high school statistics. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Regional Conference, Baltimore, MD.
Groth, R.E. (2003, October). Linking theory and practice in teaching geometry. Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics Annual Conference, Rockville, MD.
Groth, R.E. (2002, October).
Characterizing secondary
students’ understanding of measures of central tendency and variation.
Twentyfourth Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the
International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Athens, GA.
Groth, R.E. (2002, October).
NSF Graduate Fellows Project:
Enhancing mathematics teaching and learning, National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics Regional Conference, Paducah, KY.
The International Association for Statistical Education (IASE)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics (MCTM)